COSTA MESA, Calif. (AP) - Army veteran Don Matyja was getting by alright on the streets of this city tucked in Southern California suburbia until he got ticketed for smoking in the park. Matyja, who has been homeless since he was evicted nearly two years ago, had trouble paying the fine and getting to court - and now a $25 penalty has ballooned to $600.
The ticket is just one of myriad new challenges facing Matyja and others living on the streets in Orange County, where a number of cities have recently passed ordinances that ban everything from smoking in the park to sleeping in cars to leaning bikes against trees in a region better known for its beaches than its 30,000 homeless people.
Cities have long struggled with how to deal with the homeless, but the new ordinances here echo what homeless advocates say is a rash of regulations nationwide as municipalities grapple with how to address those living on their streets within the constraints of ever-tightening budgets. The rules may go unnoticed by most, but the homeless say they are a thinly veiled attempt to push them out of one city and into another by criminalizing the daily activities they cannot avoid.
There's been a sharp uptick in the past year in the number of cities passing ordinances against doing things on public property such as sitting, lying down, sleeping, standing in a public street, loitering, public urination, jaywalking and panhandling, said Neil Donovan, the executive director of the National Coalition for the Homeless.
"It definitely is more pervasive and it is more adversarial. I think in the past we found examples of it but it's not simply just growing, but it's growing in its severity and in its targeted approach to America's un-housed," said Donovan, who compared it to a civil rights issue.
"There's the whole notion of driving while black. Well, this is sitting while homeless."
Denver earlier this year voted to make urban camping illegal despite protests from homeless activists. Philadelphia banned feedings in public parks in June but the ordinance was put on hold the following month after homeless groups sued the city. And there's a new curfew for pets that help their owners beg on the Las Vegas Strip.
Matyja, in Costa Mesa, has gotten multiple tickets for smoking in the park where he camps out since the law took effect earlier this year.
"When I was in the military, I'm golden. When I was working, I was golden. When I'm not working and I'm out here, I'm a piece of garbage as far as these people are concerned," said Matyja, 50, as he walked past a row of neatly manicured lawns on a sweltering day. "They figure if they don't see you, then the problem don't exist and then they can say, `We don't have a homeless problem.'"
The Newport Beach Public Library, nestled in a coastal city better known for its surfing and miles of wide beaches, recently updated a policy that says staff can evict someone for having poor hygiene or a strong aroma. The policy also bans lounging on library furniture and creates strict limits about parking shopping carts, bikes and "other wheeled conveyances" outside the premises.
Library Services Director Cynthia Cowell insists the policy isn't aimed at the homeless, but the action has nonetheless stirred anger among homeless advocates.
"They become very clever about it and try to blanket it because they say "strong aroma" could be perfume also, but in the end it's an attempt to keep people out of where the neighborhood and community folks feel uncomfortable," said Scott Mather, director of Haven, a program for Orange County's chronically homeless.
Some cities have seen a legal backlash as homeless advocacy groups sue. Last week, the homeless in Sacramento got checks ranging from $400 to $750 apiece to settle a class-action lawsuit brought after police destroyed property seized during cleanup operations. In a similar case, a federal appeals court ruled last month that the city of Los Angeles cannot seize property left temporarily unattended on sidewalks by homeless residents.
For cities struggling with large homeless populations, the solution involves walking a tightrope between complaints from the voting public and the possibility of a lawsuit.
In Costa Mesa, a city of about 110,000 tucked between south Orange County's famous beaches and the tourist mecca of Disneyland, officials have been trying to figure out what to do about a homeless population of about 1,200 people, including up to 120 chronically homeless with severe mental illness or substance abuse issues.
Residents routinely complain about the homeless in Lions Park, a large green space in the city's downtown that is home to the library, a recreation center and a community swimming pool. The city has received calls about people masturbating and urinating outside the library's windows, taking baths in the park's fountain and leering at children who attend classes at the rec center, said Rick Francis, the city's assistant chief executive officer.
On a recent